view updated

Physiological adaptations in response to training past hsc exam question sample response

NESA Exam WorkBook

Explain the physiological adaptations an individual develops in response to the different principles of training. Use examples to support your answer.

Physiological adaptations to training include hypertrophy, decreased resting HR, increase in stroke volume & cardiac output and more haemoglobin (higher red blood cell count).

Hypertrophy refers to the increase in size of the muscle and through the training principle of progressive overload of resistance overtime leads to an increase in the muscle size. For example; after an athlete feels comfortable lifting 10kg, they can graduate to 12kg. Specificity of muscles are targeted in order for muscle hypertrophy to take place (eg. squats for quadriceps with weights).

Stroke volume and cardiac output is increased due to the progressive overload of the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Variety can be incorporated for athletes to stay motivated as it adds interest whilst these systems are stressed.

A decrease in resting HR and an increase in lung capacity is a result of progressive overload of training (eg. overloading the anaerobic system by incorporating shorter rest periods in anaerobic interval training). Progressive overload results in bone marrow making more red blood cells to keep up with demand of oxygen to the working muscles through haemoglobin transportation.

All these physiological adaptations prevent reversibility from taking place within athletes in their performance (eg. due to an increase in lung capacity, an athlete would peak for a marathon race instead of having a reversibility effect).